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III Make up a plan of the text. IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form

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  1. Answer the questions on the text.
  2. Answer the questions to the text.
  3. Answer the questions to the text.
  4. Ask questions to the text. Let your classmates answer them.
  5. Ask questions to the text. Let your classmates answer them.
  6. Choose the alternative that best suits the context.
  7. Ex.2. The following words can be used in more than one way. Underline the correct part of speech for each word as it is used in the text.
  8. Ex.2. The following words can be used in more than one way. Underline the correct part of speech for each word as it is used in the text.
  9. Exercise 11. Substitute the words in bold type by the words in the text.
  10. Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.
  11. Exercise 5. Retell the text.
  12. II. Read and translate the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. What are horizontal measurements?

2. Why does figure type refer to vertical measurements?

3. What is ease added to pattern for?

4. How do pattern catalogues help dress-makers?

5. What information is included into the pattern envelope?

6. Why are pattern pieces well-marked?

7. What do pattern symbols tell us?

8. Is it better to use patterns from the catalogue or to make it yourself?

9. Can one change the ready-made pattern on the pattern envelope?

TEXT C

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. to alter – змінювати

2. an average set – загальний набір

3. high hips – високі стегна

4. a sway back – округла спина

5. rounded shoulders – покаті плечі

6. heavy set – крупна статура

 

 

II Listen to the text and be ready to answer the questions:

1. Why do people usually alter commercial patterns?

2. How can one solve problems with the figure?

 

III Listen to the text again. Decide if the statements are true or false.

1. To cut a garment and sew it up is an impossible dream.

2. Many people change patterns made by different companies.

3. Your own measurements for your own patterns are the best choice.

4. One can consider the problem with his figure type.

5. It’s not easy to make a pattern by yourself.

 

UNIT 6

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. to shape – утворювати форму

2. a tuck – зборка

3. sheer – прозорий, легкий

4. to anchor – закріплювати

5. reinforcement – посилення

6. a gusset – вставка, клин

7. to ravel – розпускатися, розтріпуватися

8. to overcast – зшивання через край

9. moderate – помірний

10. curl – закручений

 

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. coarse fabric – груба тканина

2. a basting stitch – наметувальний стібок

3. sharp-pointed scissors – ножиці з гострими кінчиками

4. an underarm seam – шов пройми

5. a straight-needle machine – прямоголкова швейна машинка

6. loosely woven fabric – матерія з нещільний переплетенням

7. a bias seam – косий шов

8. a double-stitched seam – подвійний шов



9. to be appropriate for – підходящий

10. in one pass – за один прохід

 

Sewing a seam

A seam is row of stitching that holds two or more layers of fabric together. Seams shape fabric to fit your body. The use of certain methods to make seams can add expensive detailing to the pattern design.

To begin the operation it is necessary to thread your machine. Machine stitches are divided into two types - straight and zigzag. The straight-needle machine makes only straight stitches, unless a special attachment is used; whereas the zigzag machine can create both.

Regulation Stitch. This is the stitch used for permanent stitching such as seams, darts and tucks. The length and tension of the stitch may vary according to the fabric used. On most medium-weight fabrics, the regulation stitch is about 12 stitches to the inch; sheers require a finer stitch (16 to the inch); heavy or coarse fabrics generally take 8 to 10 stitches to the inch

Basting Stitch. Basting stitches are used for temporary joining of sections or details which may require reworking when the garment is fitted or for marking. The longest stitch on the machine (6 to 8 per inch) and a contrasting thread should be used so that the markings and bastings are easily seen and easily removed. The same tension on the machine is used as you do for permanent stitching on the fabric. To remove basting, the needle thread should be clipped every few inches and pulled out the bobbin thread using small, sharp-pointed scissors.

Stitching for Gathering. Sections which require easing or gathering should be stitched with a long stitch (6 to 10 to the inch) in matching color thread. Long threads at the ends of the stitching are to be left. Threads at one end around a pin have to be anchored, then the bobbin thread at the other end is picked up and gently drawn up to form the amount of easing or gathering needed. The shorter stitch (10 to the inch) will form finer easing or gathering; the longer (6 to the inch) will create fuller easing or gathering. Sometimes a heavier thread is used on the bobbin.

Stitching for Reinforcement. Areas where there is strain or a need for reinforcement, such as points of collars, cuffs, gussets, pointed faced openings of necklines, underarm seam of kimono sleeves, will need a finer, tighter stitch, usually 16 to 20 stitches to the inch.

Zigzag Stitch. Zigzag machines are capable of making the zigzag stitch but a straight-needle machine will require a special zigzag attachment. The small zigzag stitch may be used to stitch seams in jersey and loosely woven fabric with bias seams, giving greater elasticity which helps prevent seam splitting.

Aside from the standard straight-stitch seam there are several other stitches that are appropriate for various fabrics and situations. Whenever you sew with knits, for example, you need a seam that will stretch with the fabric. To prevent raveling of woven fabrics, seam allowance edges must be finished. The cut edge of knit fabrics does not ravel, but they often curl. To minimize this problem, the seam allowances are usually finished together and pressed to one side.

Double-stitched seam is appropriate for fabrics with minimal stretch or for seams sewn in the vertical direction on moderate stretch knits.

Narrow zigzag seam is appropriate for very stretchy knits.

Some stitch styles are a pattern of zigzag and straight stitches that stitch and finish the seam in one pass.

 

III Answer the questions:

1. What is a seam?

2. What is a function and use of seams?

3. What kinds of stitches can a machine make?

4. What type of stitches is used for making darts and tucks?

5. What is a basting stitch used for?

6. What areas need stitching for reinforcement?

7. When are zigzag stitches used?

8. What should one do to prevent raveling?

9. What types of machine stitches do you know?

10. What kinds of them do you use most of all?

 

IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. … holds two or more pieces of fabric.

2. … can create both kinds of stitches.

3. Regulation stitch is used for …

4. Basting stitch may …

5. It’s easy to remove … with the help of …

6. A straight-needle machine can’t form … so it’ll require …

 

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

Приладдя, створювати, потребувати (вимагати), постійний, тимчасовий, тонкіший, край, в’язана тканина, розтягуватись, включати (об’єднувати)

 

VI Make up sentences with the terms:

To make a seam, a special attachment, permanent stitching, temporary joining, a contrasting thread, to remove, basting, to ravel, an edge.

VII Give definitions to the words:

A seam, to baste, an attachment, stitching, a neckline, a gusset

 

VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. Шви використовуються не тільки для з’єднання декількох кусків тканини, але й для оздоблення та надання привабливого вигляду.

2. Шви можуть бути зроблені на машинці або вручну.

3. Кожен з видів стібків має свої функції та техніку створення.

4. Обметувальні стібки легко видалити, тому що вони, зазвичай, тимчасові і не закріплюються.

5. Деякі частини виробу потребують посилення, отже відповідних швів.

6. Щоб зробити шви-зигзаг на прямоголковій машині, потрібно спеціальне приладдя.

7. Шви-зигзаг також використовують, щоб запобігти торочення країв тканини.

8. Вузький шов-зигзаг саме краще підходить до сильно еластичних тканин.

9. Деякі машинки формують і закріплюють шви за один прохід.

 

IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

To make a seam, types of stitches, to be used for, a regulation stitch, a basting stitch, stitching for gathering, stitching for reinforcement, a zigzag stitch

 

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. to rely on – покладатися

2. a hand-stitched blind hem – вручну закріплена невидима підрубка

3. quilting – підбивка

4. mending – штопання

5. tucking – застрочування

6. to baste – наметування

7. slanting – косий

8. to overlap – частково покривати, заходити один за одний

 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

 

Hand Stitches

While modern sewers rely on sewing machines for speedy garment construction, there are situations when hand stitching is necessary or preferable. You may need to slipstitch an opening closed in the lining of a vest, or perhaps you like the look of a hand-stitched blind hem. And, you'll also need to sew on buttons.

This is the simplest form of hand stitch. It can be used for gathering, quilting, mending, tucking and seams that do not require much strain.

Basting Stitch

A basting stitch is used to hold two or more pieces of fabric together temporarily, to transfer construction symbols from wrong to right side of fabric and to indicate guide lines. A contrasting thread is used so the basting stitch can be easily identified when permanent stitching is made and the basting is removed. The stitch is a larger version of the running stitch, about 1/4 to 1/2 inch in length, depending on the weight of the fabric and how securely the pieces of fabric should be held together.

Even basting is used when there will be some strain on the seam. The stitches about 14 inches long are made, even on both sides of fabric.

Uneven basting is used in seams where there is little or no strain or as a guide line for stitching. Long stitches on one side of fabric and short stitches are to be taken on other side.

Diagonal basting is used to hold several layers of fabric securely together and stitched through the fabric at right angles to the fabric edge. This gives a diagonal stitch on the upper side and a short horizontal stitch on the underside. It is used to hold interfacings, linings and facings in place during fittings.

Back-Stitch

Back-stitching is used to stitch a seam securely or permanently. It looks like machine-stitching on the right side, but stitches overlap on the wrong side.

Slip-Stitch

The slip-stitch is used when stitching should not show, but it isn't very strong. It differs from the slip-basting stitch in the length of the stitches.

Hemming Stitch

A slanting stitch which shows on the wrong side and is stronger than the slip-stitch. Used for all types of hemming.

Catch-Stitch is a fairly loose but secure stitch used to hold raw edges of facings and interfacings.

Invisible Stitch and is sometimes called the French hemming stitch. This stitch is used for hems and for attaching facings and interfacings in tailoring.

 


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