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Research and Development

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  11. Text 1. THE DEVELOPMENTS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

Research and development are terms used in all types of business. They refer to changes companies make in order to stay in business and on top of their markets. Research is the work done to develop new products. It also involves the ways to make old products better. Development is the process of putting together what has been learned through research. It means inventing new machines, and finding better ways to use old machines, and finding new products and making then ready to use. Research and development are related. One does not exist without each other.

Many different jobs exist in research and development. Most people who work in this area, though, are scientists and engineers. In many ways, the people working in research and development solve problems for the garment industry.

Industrial engineers work to save companies’ and employees’ time. Industrial engineers plan the fastest ways of doing things, for example, making a pair of blue jeans. One way to speed up making a garment is to adjust the sewing machine to sew only that garment. It was figured out how many stops are necessary to make a pair of jeans. Ten different machines are used to make a pair of jeans. One machine does only pockets. Another is set up to do only plackets. It was decided that a standard pair of jeans requires 32 separate small stops to make. The total sewing time for a pair of jeans is ten to twelve minutes. Every time a new garment is called for, the industrial engineering department figures out what is the best way to go about making it.

There are many types of scientific jobs that are a part of the apparel industry. One of the more exciting ones is that of a research chemist.

Working in the field of textile research they work on developing new products and improving already existing products. The arising problems are solved once these products are in use. And, finally, new ways to test products are developed.

The department of the company decided to develop a fabric that would permit tanning. Tanning rays from the sun would go through the fiber, but burning rays would not. A person wearing a bathing suit made of this material would get a tan all over the body.

The second area of research is product development. When tight jeans became the style, research development at the blue jeans company produced stretch denim. This fabric was an improvement over regular denim. A certain amount of stretch was incorporated into fibers to make the denim more comfortable in wear, yet close-fitting. Stretch denim was seen a great new fabric. A very important part of the apparel industry is making sure that fabrics and garments behave the way they are supposed to. Research chemists spend a lot of time trying to duplicate, or imitate, real-life situations. Special tests are set up to find out how a fabric reacts to perspiration and sun bleaching. Fabrics are tested to make sure they are resistant to fire. Tests are made to see how much fabrics will stretch and whether or not they can easily return to their original shapes when stretched. Research chemists work to develop the test and then use the tests on the fabrics. Then they make recommendations to product manager. People who do research and development work several years ahead of the time when the product will be needed.



 

III Answer the questions:

1. Why do companies use research and development activities?

2. What is research?

3. What is development?

4. Can research and development exist separately?

5. Who saves time at companies?

6. What do industrial engineers do?

7. Why does one machine perform only one task?

8. What problems do they decide in the field of textile research?

9. What does research development deal with?

10. What do research chemists do?

 

IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Research and development are…..

2. The people working in research and development solve…..

3. Industrial engineers plan…….

4. …..figures out the best way to produce a garment.

5. A very important task of the apparel industry is……

6. Tests are made to…….

7. People in research and development work for some years……..

 

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

Залишатися в бізнесі, існувати, економити час, прискорювати, зупинка, хімік, проходити скрізь, звичайний, впевнитись, первинна форма

 

VI Make up sentences with the terms:

In order to, ready to use, to adjust, to be necessary for, to improve, to develop, to make a test, to be resistant to

 

VII Give definitions to the words:

A scientist, a chemist, an employee, an engineer, apparel industry

VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. Дослідження та розвиток – це два процеси на виробництві для покращення якості та ефективності.

2. Ці два процеси взаємопов’язані та нероздільні.

3. Багато людей різних професій залучені в ці процеси від початку до кінцевого результату виробництва.

4. Промисловий інженер розробляє та планує найшвидші шляхи створення речей.

5. Потрібно детально розробити кожен крок процесу виробництва одягу.

6. Дослідження та розвиток дозволяють полегшити та прискорити роботу людей, усунути всі перешкоди в роботі операторів.

7. Хіміки-текстильники постійно розробляють нові тканини та матеріали для сучасного одягу.

8. Розробка товару – важлива частина успішного представлення товару.

9. Потрібно переконатись, що тканина підходить для певного виробу.

10. Результати тестів приймаються до уваги і відповідно до них проводяться необхідні зміни та доробки.

IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

Research and development, industrial engineers, to speed up, scientific jobs, to develop fabric and equipment, to make tests, textile chemists

 

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. messy clothes – неохайний, брудний одяг

2. a care label – бірка про догляд

3. laundering – прання

4. soil-removing chemicals – хімікати для видалення плям

5. detergent – пральний порошок

6. a load – загрузка

7. to dissolve – розчиняти(сь)

8. biodegradable – схильний до біологічного розкладу

9. starch – крохмаль

10. to absorb moisture – поглинати вологу

 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:


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