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III Make up a plan of the text

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  1. Answer the questions on the text.
  2. Answer the questions to the text.
  3. Answer the questions to the text.
  4. Ask questions to the text. Let your classmates answer them.
  5. Ask questions to the text. Let your classmates answer them.
  6. Choose the alternative that best suits the context.
  7. Ex.2. The following words can be used in more than one way. Underline the correct part of speech for each word as it is used in the text.
  8. Ex.2. The following words can be used in more than one way. Underline the correct part of speech for each word as it is used in the text.
  9. Exercise 11. Substitute the words in bold type by the words in the text.
  10. Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.
  11. Exercise 5. Retell the text.
  12. II. Read and translate the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.


V Questions for discussion:

1. What is the most visible thing in clothes?

2. Can colours “talk”?

3. How are colours divided?

4. Why can’t colours be worn together?

5. What is the colour key?

6. What is it based on?

7. What do all human colourings have in common?

8. What can colours create?

9. Can colours cheer up a person?

10. What do colours do with our feelings?



I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. to reveal about – викривати

2. vital – життєвий, енергійний

3. cautious – обачний, обережний

4. to be inclined – бути схильним

5. benevolent – великодушний, доброзичливий

6. self-reliant – впевнений в своїх силах

7. self-sufficient – самодостатній

8. honest – чесний

9. down-to-earth – приземлений, простуватий


II Listen to the text ‘Colours and Character’ and be ready to answer the questions:

1. What can colours describe?

2. What are the main colours worn by people?

III Listen to the text again. Decide if the statements are true or false.

1. Colours can’t reveal about the person.

2. Red is the colour of trying to be the best.

3. If you wear black you can cope with all life’s troubles.

4. Green is for those who like to live quietly.

5. Brown is the colour of the Moon and the Earth.




I Listen and remember the following words:

1. a sketch – ескіз

2. inventive – винахідливий

3. to bounce around – крутитися

4. approval – погодження, схвалення

5. a mannequin – манекен

6. to figure out – уявляти

7. a co-worker – співпрацівник

8. to draw – креслити, малювати олівцем


II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. to redesign a garment – переробляти дизайн

2. a merchandising department – відділ торгівлі

3. a division manager – менеджер підрозділу

4. a drawing board – креслярська дошка

5. a collar tab – петлиця на коміру

6. an engineering department – технічний відділ

7. mass market – масовий ринок, масовий продаж

Apparel Design

Creating a design is the first step in making a garment. In apparel designing, someone comes up with an idea for a garment. This idea is presented to others-usually in the form of a sketch – who then considers how good it is.

Designers and design stylists are very inventive people. They have to be flexible so they can see and use new ideas. Design stylists take designs and redesign them. For example, they may redesign a very high-fashion garment for the mass market of department stores.

Designers also have to understand design principles and how clothes are constructed. In this way, they know what will work and what will not.

The process of designing or redesigning a garment is much the same in most companies.

When designers or stylists get an idea, they let it bounce around for a while inside their heads until they feel ready to work with it. Design ideas are usually sketched. Designers may sketch several ideas for one garment before developing a design they like. They may come up with two or three good sketches for one garment and ask co-workers to help make a final decision. If the person works for a company, she or he usually presents the sketches to someone or some department for approval. Once the idea has been set down, the production of the garment often goes through man hands. For example, one designer or design stylist may meet with the merchandising department of the company. Another may meet with the division manager. Together, these people narrow the choice down to one design. Often their decision is based on what they think will be sold. Everyone may agree that one sketch is particularly elegant, but it may be too elegant for a mass market or too expensive to make.

Once a design has been chosen, the designer goes back to the drawing board. The design must now be drawn in detail. Sewing directions must also be written out and sewing illustrations must be drawn. A sewing illustration is a very specific drawing showing how to make some special part of the garment. It might show how far apart to place the buttons or how to attach a collar tab or where double stitching is to be placed. The sample makers, another group of skilled workers in the garment industry, make up a sample of the design. The sample garment should be looked over very carefully. All the design proportions and details are checked. If some minor detail does not work, it must be changed. If something major does not work, this may call for a new sample garment. At this stage, the garment is put on a mannequin and checked carefully. The garment is also worn by a live model. The live model helps the designer see how the garment moves. This shows where the designer needs to fit it together or looser. After the sample garment is perfected and accepted, it goes to the merchandising and engineering departments. They decide how to make the garment, based on the kinds of styles they usually produce. Most important, they figure out how much the garment will cost to produce and decide on the most efficient, the least expensive way of making it. At this point, production on the garment begins.


III Answer the questions:

1. What is the first stage in dress-making?

2. How is the idea presented?

3. What people are engaged in sketch making?

4. What do they do?

5. What does “redesigning” mean?

6. How does the process of sketch making begin?

7. Who makes the final decision?

8. Where do designers draw a sketch?

9. How should it be drawn?

10. What is the function of a live model?


IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. The idea of the garment is usually presented in the……..

2. The designers may….an old-fashioned garment.

3. The sketches are presented for final……

4. ……is a very detailed drawing showing…….

5. When the garment is made it should be checked on…..

6. The live model helps…..

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

Дизайн одягу, винахідливий, масовий продаж, ескіз одягу, ухвалення, петлиця, зразок, уявляти собі, вдосконалювати, відділ продажу

VI Make up sentences with the terms:

To come up with the idea, design principles, to sketch ideas, to set down the idea, to narrow the choice, to draw a pattern, to attach, to call for something else


VII Give definitions to the words:

A sketch, a drawing board, to redesign, a merchandising department, a mannequin


VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. Виробництво одягу починається зі створення його ескізів.

2. Дизайнери та стилісти дуже творчі люди з новітніми ідеями щодо виробництва одягу.

3. Розуміючи основні принципи дизайну, спеціаліст знає, як створювати деталі одягу.

4. Прийняття остаточного рішення - дуже складний процес, в який залучено декілька учасників.

5. Потрібно приймати до уваги ціну майбутнього одягу для масового споживання.

6. Всі деталі зразка дуже ретельно оглядаються і, якщо потрібно, перероблюються.

7. На живій моделі видно, як одяг буде сидіти під час руху.

8. Одяг, зазвичай, ще більш вдосконалюється та повторно затверджується.

9. Одяг повинен бути доступним та прийнятним за стилем для потенційних покупців.

10. Масове виробництво починається, коли перевірені, враховані та виправлені найменші недоліки.


IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

Creating a design, in the form of a sketch, to take design, to redesign, to understand design principles, to bounce around the idea, to sketch several ideas, to make a final decision, to go back to the drawing board, to put on a mannequin, to be worn by a live model, to begin production



I Read and remember:

1. to employ – наймати

2. an exciting job – захоплююча робота

3. to carry out – виконувати

4. to deliver – постачати

5. a retail store – роздрібний магазин

6. a stormy practical bent – шалений нахил до практичності

7. to position – розміщувати

8. to compete – конкурувати


II Read the text and define the main idea of it:



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