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Full understanding. 12.3.1.Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

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  8. Reading for general understanding. Skim read the text. Think of a good title for it. Compare it with other students' titles.

12.3.1.Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте:

specialist, jurisdiction [,³u@rIs'dIkS@n], national, to organize, veto ['vÖtou], to block, bill, Federal Court of Appeals [a'pÖlz].

* 12.3.2. Смотрите, слушайте, повторяйте, запомните:

New words:

Chief Justice — главный судья

to approve [@'prüv] — одобрять

circuit ['sýkIt] — округ

bench — (зд.) состав суда

judiciary [³ü'dIS(@)rI] — судоустройство

existing — существующий

to pass a law — принять закон

to issue ['Isjü] — издавать (о приказе)

School vocabulary:

field, to belong, white.

12.3.3. Прочитайте и переведите:

Jane's letter

(continued)

«...You asked me to tell some words about the judicial system of the USA. Though I'm not a specialist in this field I'll try to do my best. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the US and it meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington. It's a beautiful build­ing of white marble. Above the main entrance the words are written «Equal Justice Under Law». The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice of the USA and eight Associate Justices. They are all appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. The Su­preme Court has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress or any order issued by the President. This right of veto is widely used to block the passage of any progressive bills. The USA is divided into eleven judicial circuits and each one is served with a Federal Court of Appeals. As a rule the Court of Appeals sits with three judges on the bench. There are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. The district courts are the lowest ones in the Federal court system. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts. The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used, and witnesses are called. There are about two hundred district judges in the USA. Cases tried in the district court may be appealed in one of the eleven Courts of Appeal and in the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court is final. In the US the judiciary is divided into the federal and state judiciary. Jurisdiction of particular courts or judges is deter­mined by either the national or state constitutions and laws. The state courts are organized in a system that looks like the system of Federal courts with a Supreme Court at the top. In most of the states the lowest courts are the magistrates, or police courts...»



(to be continued)

12.3.4. В тексте встречаются более 10 случаев употре­бления Passive Voice. Дайте, пожалуйста, точную цифру.

12.3.5. Предположим, что вы пишете отчет вашему начальнику о краже со взломом. Используйте следующие слова и Passive Voice.

1. The door of the house, to force, at 10 p. m. yesterday.

2. The old man, to beat, to tie.

3. The most valuable things, to take.

4. The fingerprints, to find, on many pieces of furniture.

5. The knife, to leave, by one of the burglars.

6. The car, to use, by them, and the traces of it, to find, near the house.

7. The old man, to take to the hospital.

12.3.6. Предположим, что вы сопровождаете в качест­ве гида иностранного туриста, приехавшего в Ростов. Предложите ему план пребывания в Ростове. Используйте Future Simple.

Model: Tomorrow at 5 p. m. you'll be taken to Drama Theatre.

12.3.7. Преподаватель упрекает вас в целом ряде поступков. Попытайтесь оправдаться, исполь­зуя Passive Voice и выражения:

Oh, no; you see...;

The fact is that...;

On the contrary...

1. You took my text-book yesterday.

2. You fell asleep at my lesson.

3. I saw you kiss this girl/boy.

4. I know you are going to miss my lesson tomorrow.

5. You broke the window in our classroom yesterday.

6. You hid my bag and I can't find it.

7. You beat your neighbour.

12.3.8. В нашем классе случаются странные вещи. Скажите, кого вы подозреваете в этом.

Model: (to break the window) — The window was broken by...

1. to tear note-books;

2. to break the teacher's table;

3. to eat smb's apple;

4. to hide student's coats;

5. to bring monkey to the lesson;

6. to write a letter to the teacher;

7. to scold the teacher.

*12.3.9. Скажите по-английски:

1. Меня попросили рассказать о судебной системе США. 2. Его предложение одобря­ется всеми членами совета. 3. Эти судьи назначаются президентом. 4. Этого свидетеля вызвали последним 5. Присяжные ис­пользуются в наиболее серьезных случаях. 6. Закон был принят вчера. 7. Страна раз­делена на несколько округов. 8. Большинство гражданских дел рассматривается судами магистрата. 9. Существующие системы судов штатов возглавляются верховными судами штатов. 10. Суды штатов организованы по­добно федеральным судам.

12.3.10. Петр решил рассказать смешную историю. Он пытался как можно чаще употреблять Passive Voice. Удалось ли ему справиться с этим без ошибок?

This story was told by Charles Dickens. During a sea-trip a young girl was courted by five young men. She was at a loss whom to choose. She was advised to jump overboard and then marry the one who would be jumped in after her. The girl did as she was told. She was jumped into the sea and was followed by four of the men. When they were fished out of the water by the sailors she was at a loss even more than before. «What shall I do with these four wet men?» — she was asked the captain. «Take the dry one», was the old sea-wolf's advice. And so she did.

12.3.11. Постарайтесь начертить схему системы фе­деральных судов США, пользуясь инфор­мацией в тексте этого урока.

12.3.12.Попытайтесь соотнести название судов (сле­ва) и их юрисдикцию (справа).

Supreme Court 1. Most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by this court.

Court of Appeal 2. It has the right to declare unconstitutional any law passed by Congress.

District Court 3. It hears appeals from low­er courts.

12.3.13. Прочитайте дополнительную информацию о федеральной системе судов США и рас­скажите, что вы поняли (по-русски).

CourtsThe government can be sued for of Claims unpaid salary, property taken for public use and personal injuries for which the Federal government is responsible. The Court of Claims consists of a chief justice and 4 as­sociate justices who are appointed by the President with Senate ap­proval.

CustomsThis court deals with all the cases

Court arising at the customs when goods enter the country. This court was established in 1890 and is located in New York where most of its business is conducted.

Court of The court hears appeals from

Customs decisions of the Customs Court and Patent and the Patent Office. Its judge-Appeals ments and decrees are final.

* 12.3.14. Предположим, что вы — один из судей Верховного суда США. Иностранные кор­респонденты задают вам вопрос о судебной системе США. Дайте точные ответы на их вопросы.


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